Poses gn eee eo Geet a ested CO LOOP ELINA AN OG CL ate eM EN GM Ra errr a Oe er ar a i ll to Po ae * qeeoas tee ree - : oe eA Ae BN LI Rk A ie - . : Ont Oe en eae 1 PR mth rpm tire hn nh Lest soe abl «Hn nh tee Ss atin eine tee Ain eA htt tit oes Co Sin ote h ee ean nti lh hr Oe a ee ee ° f -deailbn Serena PN Arte the nna ttt stow ef nl 8) Liv tt te ind Go eB hte tea aoa see og eA WENT Te Hina tage Mat AE eae on - Soe eee oe aecaenes a adh Ah i Oth nll a

win then hn aren Wirth r= Mine tdi elem eh Bi ahd for theo 1 all gotten attri iret oth tn be tm altnite te Pate atin not + ar Mo Gases 5 he esther Ol Co Oi aba 0ot- Gn coe We Se NE ra ete ah ae Be as . yrernd ee eee es day ee 3 ~ 7 - » Abate n ee a Le i. phn. Cad he at . omen td De Ra) acon AE Whit chet pedbethete ot sbrndds Fol Fed Ps tin hate altar a

ee er a Se cieon eaten pe Te SEE ete aeons eat best tied dt . RO A EO ae Oe pada ee oats eer at & - a > a ne hn Rant Bak = P/E Ne nh nO Oe on dbnn eons eta eaewe Perna BoB he ene . Sh leona Godot . . <p ¥ a Ad a if dori ti Hes SONAL a Foww. tia kw te re Pwr rer dog Oee ab De Pelee eee ee itndadni (BoB nN oe. Sonne shalt Pea 7 4 adnib = Be =O Ninth 8 ndboTh Amen ivi . Minti abe ert

eh the thet te he mr tna 2 ented A doe pets thik acinar nee

hte Ati ee that eld An Sith 8- YS Sinead ltke Sen : pol. . : pats abn al abe he ab

oh ee OR Reh tie eer " ~ - Cth alle Nod GPE ian

caine a Riad bie nt nt a ne ni ae Ae at Ga gine BS Gite Lie ihe ited And Wt are 2 en en a on as nei teat ee ke Le On ht hp I Ae nd" HE Ath I Sth : I tet eh > Ad sovth ? t oe le tle li a to A te ton tn AP Rap wren oe AaB “Yt ir per aaa gh mth nog canna = oh ate ae . . ° ae ne NS ee ASE ce thea Bethe (ge Be ahha ae lade = eat om ae 7 er earns mAh a fants - Dever tbeth apts oer hah heat thant : - ee <a Raa nln tas si reid en er eee ee ° a nbakb epithe dma BAe - se enti dite nm ie Aratte im 2 dine rhn ds Bohs

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bem teahir tin aie abd . eS ae é bi PA Ann

an Poe own Set ee acm

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2A Ee ~ Rane Beem Och g le pete ae ; ete ee z - - ana “etme ; ett , Pe aE OF WWE NEN Ddietin - eae arte at a) OPA Ime Pe it ant Sag a A , : Pb ebrelindnan- om mars ~ veraran ernie ws se ~— _ we = aval re see neers reer : . oe st fab ab ac Bn Dut age da kina than onaedea-eds ne " - i weer aan oe nes Fo Ree geben De te eid bts Ts ; rene Pare tredie Rpmenneetoneaeinirenas eerie svrr

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BS Br eo ee ee eo i v VOL. XX.—FOURTH SJL






Omnes res creatse sunt divine sapientix et potentiz testes, divitia felicitatis humanz :—ex harum usu bonitas Creatoris; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; ex ceconomid in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. Harum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper sstimata; a veré eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta; malé doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit.”—Linnavs.

“Quel que soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu’ouvrir les yeux pour voir qu’elle est le chef-d’ceuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rappor- tent toutes ses opérations.”—Bruckner, Théorie du Systéme Animal, Leyden,


Piece connect eats enrau = The sylvan powers Obey our summons; from their deepest dells The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild And odorous branches at our feet; the Nymphs That press with nimble step the mountain-thyme And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, But scatter round ten thousand forms minute Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock Or rifted oak or cavern deep: the Naiads too Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush That drinks the rippling tide: the frozen poles, Where peril waits the bold adventurer’s tread, The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, All, all to us unlock their secret stores And pay their cheerful tribute. J. Tayior, Norwich, 1818.


ter -<7~





I. On the Distribution of Birds in North Russia.—II. Longitudinal Distribution of Species North of 64° 30' N. lat., or the Northern Division, By J. A. Harvie Brown, F.Z.8., Member of the British rerio gists: WO MAGHy saci ad aes eats care or a hain be. w eine ole tana e

II. Notes on Carboniferous Polyzoa, By R. Eruertpes, jun., teres ( edate sls Av Werseae ae cae Mestre oat oun eeapsielerutins foil =e 6

IIf. Arctic and Antarctic Sponges &c. By H. J. Carrer, F.R.S. Beer MALO Mi 55,265 > wurst tagtnd Het pag cte ola aaIAe aitinsein) eotine iofumystaietans ose

IV. Descriptions of Asiatic Diurnal Lepidoptera. By FrEpDERIcK Waa GE LLE TS crasanei do Rislskinn Cote Siren Maen Sfosasca a sieve. Toc eiluin dere ae

V. Report on the Crustacea collected by the Naturalists of the Arctic Expedition in 1875-76. By Epwarp J. Mimrs, F.LS., F.Z.8S., Assistant in the Zoological Department, British Museum

VI. Note on Lists of Arctic Hydroida and Polyzoa published in the ‘Annals’ for February 1874 and January 1877. By the Rev. MeOMAs TUNOKS, BA. PUR Disgrsn wid 55, duis otk Gaanaigrok ee bite

VII. On the Branched Form of the Apertural Prolongation from the Summit of Carpenteria monticularis. By H. J. Carrer, F.R.S. OO ae gae ohana nto aie Chee Mayan eteNe seit GU eee ta i i ot Sn i bled ogee antes

VII. On the Salenide, Wright.—Part I. Observations on the Morphology of a Recent Salenia. By P. Martin Duncan, F.RS.,





Presi, Geolsec, (Pinte ii, Bay “sive sce see a eee mee eee 70 IX. On a small Collection of Orthopterous Insects of the Families Phasmide and Mantide from Australia and New Britain, with De- scriptions of four new Species. By Prof. J. Woop-Mason, Deputy Superintendent, Indian Museum, Calcutta..............0..00006: 74 X. On Ovulites margaritula. By Professors W. K. Parker and A ica ORCAS eat or eh chee eon ahs nd ie NR 3 oan ole ee aaa aa? 77 Zoology of the Challenger’ Expedition; The Locomotor System: tl, Meduisae "iar date ehiy cioinie store mtmects ate rice sie Meee Ma 79, 80 NUMBER CXVI. XI. On the Structure of Peripatus nove-zealandie. By Capt. F.

VV ES VEL O Ne tenn cic Bis. crate Gaerne ae Be eioeeiaucinlepeatatotans: os Se deter

81 _


XII. New Species of Heterocerous Lepidoptera of the Tribe Bom- byces, collected by My. W. B. Pryer chiefly in the District of Shaugha. By Frepmric Moonn, WS. ...... 6 ens ess oe eebne

XIII. Descriptions of four new Species of Birds from the Indian Region. By Artuur, Marquis of TwEEpDALE, F.R.S...........

XIV. Report on the Crustacea collected by the Naturalists of the Arctic Expedition in 1875-76. By Epwarp J. Miers, F.L.S., ¥.Z.5., ap aa in the Zoological Department, British Museum. (Plates ILL.

UNM e a aos. 6 a ecagetes casos eete & ata tt a eae MO ECT ote asl s anf fa ne as

XV. Descriptions of new Species of Heteropterous Hemiptera collected in the Hawaiian Islands by the Rev. T. Blackburn.—No. I. Pye. BUCHANAN wrercrrr. MLD). BRS 2 20.0 cit oles elaiw rate Sees

XVI. Descriptions of new Species of New-Zealand Myriopoda. By Capt. F. W. Hutton, Professor of Natural Science in the University IRR OSE a Ee crash bra Saya wid as, 53 3 na Ses wig ga) ae ee ets

XVII. List of Lepidoptera recently collected by Mr. Walter Davis in Peru, with Descriptions of a new Genus and several new Species. ByeBeeur G. bUTURE, PLS. 0h Liss, Cle. a cis's sree oe eerie:

XVIII. Notes on a Paper by R. H. Traquair, M.D., F.G.S., F.R.S., on the Structure of the Lower Jaw in R/uizodopsts and Fihindas. Laby. THOMAS ATTIRE, } > oj0 ji} sajd oboe Sey upon ema dhe 2

XIX. Description of a new Species of Phasmide from India. By Prof. J. Woop-Mason, Deputy-Superintendent, Indian Museum, REEMA hes AEE. ody. MBE Wobedn ab a Guts ook ee E's OP OEE SPs ee

XX. On the Mollusca collected during the Arctic Expedition of 1875-76. By Epegar A. Smiru, Zoological Department, British Mibenre) G0 20 t LE cciailie dake ATH. tpt pa Vehreee

Proceedings of the Royal Society..............00eee eee eees 146, Proceedings of the Geological Society..........---++s++ee- 152,

On the first Development of a Starfish, by M. H. Fol; On the Fecun- dation of the Egg.in the Echinus, by M. J. Perez; On some Abnormal Fecundations in Starfishes, by M. H. Fol; On two new Genera and Species of Lizards from South America and






Borneo, by Dr. Steindachner ............. Ee nt Arete 154—160


XXI. Contributions to Micro-Palzontology—I. On the Genus Tetradium, Dana, and on a British Species of the same. By H. ALLEYNE NicuHoson, M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.E., and Roprert ETHE- EDR MORNE AG ISn's reo lel eceiujelnve > on efele Wi 2.0s\s's POM RC eit Hyena

XXII. Description of an apparently new Species of Lamprocolius. By UD, Gabnion, PRS .B. Ge... os. kee en be =a nals

XXIIL. Description of an apparently new Species of Ground- Hornbill. “By D.'G. Eintor, F.RS.E. &ee piace ei ees os Sere




XXIV. On a Melobesian Form of Foraminifera (Gypsina melobe- stoides, mihi); and further Observations on Carpenteria monticularis.

Berit rel UATE Beet OGG: ps aad oe ele ahs aie ne ip'e © wae ee ad, oie

XXYV. On a Fossil Species of Sarcohexactinellid Sponge allied to Tiyalonama...,, By Hd. CARTER FRIST SC.) Poids s siaels alee she ses

XXVI. Description of a new Species of Batrachostomus from Central Borneo.. By Dr. F. BRUGGEMANN..............000000-

XXVII. Onthe Distribution of Birds in North Russia.—Part ITI. On the Longitudinal Distribution of the Birds of the SourHERN Division (between 645° N. and 58°-60° N.), and a Comparison of the Faunas of the two Divistons ; with Summaries. By J. A. Harvie Brown, F.Z.S., Member of the British Ornithologists’ Union ......

XXVIII. On British Polyzoa.—Part I. By the Rev. THomas Baie, Bo hieg: Ts Eee yew ein hh on eee se laces, Sea a Roe a ore od

XXIX. Note on the Radical Fibres of the Polyzoa. By the Rev. LEMONS SAT NOKB, Exes. Peardeak cncalads oie signe oh Wealalere halt URRIEA wtabats

XXX. On a new Genus of Hydroids from the White Sea, with a short Description of other new Hydroids. By C. MrrrscnKowsky. CEIBEST aoe Vk a emer nde CN ate Kk gitce mplre te wet amen ee Rr Sroka

XXXI. The Post-tertiary Fossils procured in the late Arctic Expedition ; with Notes on some of the Recent or Living Mollusca

from the same Expedition. By J. Gwyn Jerrreys, LL.D., F.R.S. 2

XXXII. Description of a new Species of Helix. By Epcar A.






Situ, Zoological Department, British Museum ................ 242 On the Structure of the Lower Jaw in Rhizodopsis and Rhizodus, by Dr. R. H. Traquair; Note on the Genus Peoptera, by Dr. F. SUS SONIANM | 8% ta eieeR Oe Nach sek aed Ritminicebakgee cen Neh 244 NUMBER CXVIII. XXXII. On the Salenide, Wright.—Part II. Observations on the Morphology of Recent Salenie, and Description of a new Species. By P. Martin Duncan, F.R.S., Pres. Geol. Soc. (Plate VIL.) .. 245 XXXIV. Studies on Fossil Sponges.—I. Hexactinellida. By USING OED 1 RY ER gn 257 XXXV. On some new and little-known Spiders from the Arctic Regions. By the Rev. O. P. Campriner, M.A., C.M.Z.S., &e. GE Vater MyM leases ce SDB eartporn CLs a td die cade gO wale Coed arale sae ah de eche. 5 278

XXXVI. On the Changes produced in the Siliceous Skeletons of certain Sponges by the Action of Caustic Potash. By W. J.Soxuas, M.A., F.G.S., formerly Scholar of St. John’s College, Cambridge. LL SENS: DG IRAE... omy et Chea EMM fin ne BRM ONS Pee NN as A c-rnk re

XXXVII. Notes on Stony Corals in the Collection of the British Museum. By Drs Fe esG@GuMANNy 205 Goad ccc etes soak

XXXAVI. On Bellidia Huntii, a Genus and Species of Crustacea supposed to be new. By Puirre Henry Goss, F.R.S. (Plate X.)





: Page XXXIX. On Hancockia endactylota, a Genus and Species of Mol- lusca supposed to be new. By Purim Henry Goss, F.R.S.

(Plate Rh.) ieee eee ble ee ba ean con Ae ho Dee Ue te eed 316 XL. Descriptions of twenty-three new Species of Hesperwde from

his own Collection. By W. C. HEWITSON. ....... 0.0 cece eens 519 XLI. Capture of a Right Whale in the Mediterranean. By

RUB AY DMOTRAN. “eo iaie, dolala «sip a MMe AEN UNM Maks oaralbaialeheue sista te™ayy ie 028 XLUL. Notes on the Pearly Nautilus (Nautilus pompilius). By

GronGkt BENNETT, M.D., BLLS. 2 oo as ie ile ee ee ee 331 XLUI. On a new Insect Pest at Madeira. By T. Vernon WoL-

LABTON, MiAiey FltSesisafete 5,05 06 seb sigle espe disinten ae Aes «sip 334

XLIV. Remarks on Prof. E. Haeckel’s Observations on Wyville- thomsonia Wallichii and Squamulina scopulu. By H. J. Carter, PO TRP RS ee a Seca ca sie erste pte eye =) have sudieuwiall NO aD aed aes neta haces oe 58

XLV. Descriptions of Ceylon Lepidoptera. By F. Moors, F.Z.S. 539

XLVI. On a Collection of Lepidoptera obtained by the Rev. S. J. Whitmee from Lifu (Loyalty Group), with Descriptions of the new Species. By Antuur G. BuTLer, BP yods, Li Lid.g Reese ete cee Ags 348

New Book :—Researches on the Fossil Remains of the Extinct Mammals of Australia; with a Notice of the Extinct Marsu-

pials of England, by Richard Owen, CHB. BSE fae ees ok 359 Proceedings of the Royal Society... .....6+ sere e cent eee ences 361

On some Points in the Embryology of Annelids, by M. C. Bar- rois; On a new Genus of the Family 7ritonide, by M. A. MaySSICNC. cee soap on sdpaedsetrrerssen trot: ot OMe nEE 365, 367


XLVII. On Pteroplax cornuta, H. & A. By THomas ATTHEY, (Plates XII. & KIIL) 2... cece eee cece ee te eee e cece ewan ene 869 _ XLVIII. Characters of new Genera and of some undescribed

Species of Phytophagous Beetles. By JosepuH 8. Baty, F.L.S. .. 877 XLIX. Note on Lichens. By G. H. K. Tuwarres, F.R.S. .... 386

L. Contributions to Micro-Paleontology—II. On Prasopora Gray@, a new Genus and Species of Silurian Corals. By H. ALLEYNE Nicuorson, M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.E., and Ropert ETHE-

RIDGE, Ten, FG Goss) sie% esele oiein Finan hyenas cneiey tele ee ees eae eae

LI. Descriptions of new Species of Heterocera from. Japan.— Part I. Sphinges and Bombyces. By ARTHUR G. Buturer, F.L.S.,

BOs ee ara necnfcamenas: t+ svn os eo st 320) seamen B93 LII. Description of an apparently new Species of Humming-bird of the Genus Amazilia. By D. G. Exxiot, F.RS.E. &e.... 0.0.6 404

LIU. Studies on Fossil Sponges.—I. Hexactinellida. By Karu ALFRED ZITTEL. occ ccscccets wecseccceev vemseeecerenee genes


Page LIV. Description of a new Genus and Species of Cicindelide allied to Tetracha, from South Africa (Coleoptera Geodephaga). By CeApEts.O. WATERHOUSE, «5 ocidius cc's di meee eines «sina one eas 424

LV. On a Carboniferous Hyalonema and other Sponges from Ayr- shire. By Professor J. Youne and Mr. J. Youne, F.G.S. (Plates EVV eet Mere jo nih bite T4 paren Sebo wie chan a eck aloe oon Sane 425

LVI. Preliminary Notes on new Fishes collected in Japan during the Expedition of H.M.S. ‘Challenger’ By Dr. A. Ginruer, F.R.S., Keeper of the Zoological Department, British Museum .... 433

M. K. A. Zittel on Fossil Hexactinellida, by W. Saville Kent, F.L.S. ; Phenomena accompanying the Metamorphosis of Libel- lula depressa, by M. Jousset de Bellesme ; On the Termination of the Nerves in the Electrical Apparatus of the Torpedo, by M.C. Rouget ; Prof. Haeckel’s Group of the Physamarie 446—448


LVII. Report on the Echinodermata collected during the Arctic CCl Expedition, 1875-76. By Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B. Lond., F.R.S., Pres. Geol. Soc., and W. Percy SiapEn, Esq., F.G.S.,

F.LS., &e. Pale pe 8 S\@Ke, 0 6, @ me 8) .e' 18 © 2) ole «| (silahe/ie! 6) e/ erste! ais i) 616) 6) 6 8) eG) 6 use 0 818 449 = LVIII. Description of a new Species of Foraminifera (Rotalia spiculotesta). By H. J. Carter, F.R.S. &. (Plate XVI.)........ 470

LIX. Descriptions of new Species of Heterocera from Japan.— Part I. Sphinges and Bombyces. By Arruur G. Butter, F.L.S., BF ey OCC. sais. n t's a, phates cha Re Fa dis (setae arenes aie ew RS 473

LX. The Post-tertiary Beds of Grinnell Land and North Green- land. By H. W. Ferpen, F.G.S., C.M.Z.S., Naturalist to the late Arctic Expedition ; and Note by J. Gwyn Jerrreys, LL.D., F.R.S. 483

LXI. Appendix to Papers “On the Distribution of Birds in North Russia” (‘ Annals,’ 1877)—being Additions to the Data for the Southern Division, by Herr Richard Sievers (with Summaries up to

Date), Ubyeh. AL Pave Ro wny, FZ.5 0 8 a's cessive see: | 494 LXII. The Nomenclature of the Groups of Ratite. By ALFRED Diener AL Se. VP Zeiss cae motile eric we Mania ebeiael ee ats » 499 LXIII. Studies on Fossil Sponges.—I. Hexactinellida. By Kan Ape Prrmisiicbi2. soe ad san Ale we bean coe o4 501 LXIV. On two new British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By the ibeery. Ac Neem (Mt co tase» Setar Met sre Siete e Aa 8 IV

LXV. Descriptions of supposed new Birds from the Naga Hills and Eastern Assam. By Lieut.-Col. H. H. Gopwin-AusteEn,

LXVI. On British Polyzoa.—Part II. Classification. By the Rev. PHOMAS) PNCIR, AZ, BO Esspyicec tes ccs ce aia ce e's + sogtreas 520


Page LXVII. Descriptions of some new Species of Birds. By ArTHuR,

Margttts of TwrEpparns PRS. hd Peed £2 ee ek | 583 LXVIII. Description of a new Species of Bulimus from South Afnes. By Hnaan. Ac; Sieve 0 ZS) ere} Dee Rae. a Ren

Remarks on the Yellow Ant; On some Points in the Organization of the Bryozoa, by M. L. Joliet ; On the Coloration of tho Opti- cal Elements in Locusta viridissima, by M. J. Chatin; On a new Marsupial from Australia, by Prof. R. Owen, F.R.S. &e. . .589—542

Fades) see ck Ma tna bb & totes bes teers ea des ‘die Leer 543


ATE I, Arctic and Antarctic Sponges. Il. Carboniferous Polyzoa—Salenia varispina ? iy bp IV.

mi New Hydroids from the White Sea.

Arctic Crustacea.

VIL. Salenia profundi. VII. Arctic Spiders. IX. Siliceous Skeletons of Sponges. X. Bellidia Huntii.

XI. UHancockia eudactylota.


KV. | XVI. Rotalia spiculotesta.

Pteroplax cornuta.

Fossil Hyalonema and other Sponges.





Sieranseuanetttater per litora spargite muscum, Naiades, et circiim vitreos considite fontes: Pollice virgineo teneros hic carpite flores: Floribus et pictum, dive, replete canistrum. - At vos, o Nymphe Craterides, ite sub undas ; Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas Ferte, Dex pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo.””

NV. Parthenii Giannettasii Kol.

Nov ifs. JULY 1877,

I.—On the Distribution of Birds in North Russia.— II. Longitudinal Distribution of Species North of 64° 30' N. lat., or the NortTHERN Division. By J. A. HARVIE Boys ¥.Z.S., Member of the British Ornithologists’



Wuite I was preparing the following paper it was suggested to me that I should include the northern portions of Scandi- navia and Finland, as well as Iceland, Spitzbergen, and Novaja Zemlja, as then the distribution of species in the whole of the portions of the Western Palearctic region north of 64° 30! N. lat., as far as recorded, would be shown in one tabular view. I have given the matter due consideration; and although I have at hand most of the materials necessary for such a com- parison, I have come to the conclusion that the more satis- factory way will be first to complete the tabulation of records in Russia, as far south as 60° or 59° N. lat., and then to com- are the faunas of the countries north of the Baltic and north of the parallel of 60° N., and to show, under each, the northern and southern, as well as the western and eastern, distri- bution. It was, again, suggested to me that I should confine my

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 4. Vol. xx. 1

2 Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown on the

present tabulation to the districts which have been pretty fully worked; but upon consideration of this I concluded that, as my paper is intended not only to show what has been done ornithologically in North Russia, but also what remains to be done, it would serve my purpose better to include the comparatively unworked districts also, with certain reser- vations. One of these reservations is, the withholding of the recorded faunal value of the species, in many instances, beyond the record of first value (viz. simple recorded presence: vide explanation of symbols, further on), as, for instance, in the N.W. District. By doing this the continuity of the Table will not be affected, while at the same time all past work, with the exception of these reservations, will be placed, once for all, within easy reach. Further elucidation of the fauna . can thus at any time in future be worked into the present Tables without altering their form or permitting them to get out of date.

With regard to the northerly distribution of insectivorous species in Russia and in Norway, it will only be necessary here to institute the general comparison that they will be found, with not very many exceptions, to reach localities in Russia situated from four to six degrees of latitude south of that which they reach in Norway.

In the ‘Ann. & Mag. of Nat. Hist.’ for April 1877, I have already treated of the latitudinal distribution of the birds of North-east Russia. Since this part of my paper was sent to press, I have been able to consult most of the authors who have treated of the birds north of 64° 30’ N. lat. and to compare their records. As already mentioned, however (oc. cit. p. 279), these materials are still insufficient to admit of an accurate knowledge of the minutiz of latitudinal distribution, owing to the large extent of unexplored country. ‘The present part of my paper therefore does not profess to exhaust the subject or even to approach completeness, but is merely a stepping-stone towards fuller records. In other words, I have thought it advisable to collect our already acquired knowledge of North-Russian species, and place it in a more accessible form.

To enable me to do this easily, and on a uniform plan, I have, in the first place, divided North Russia into two great divisions, which I propose to call the ‘‘ NorTHERN ”’ and the SouTHERN Drvistons.” The former, with which we have more particularly to do at present, is included between the parallels of 64° 30’ N. lat. and 70° N. lat. The Southern (which I propose to make the subject of a later part of this paper) is that portion south of 64° 30! N. lat., and between

Distribution of Birds in North Russia. 3

that and 60° N. lat., or about the latitude of St. Petersburg, but also including the whole of the Government of Vologda.

Further, for purposes of comparison, I have divided the ““NorTHEeRN Division” into three Districts, which I name and define as follows :—

Ist. The N.W. District of the Northern Division,”—In- cluded between 30° and 40° E. long. (and north of 64° 30'N. lat., which latter parallel passes through the Gulf of Onega). This includes the whole of the Kola peninsula, and all west of the White Sea up to the frontier of Russian Finland. By reference to the list of authors given further on, it will be seen that our materials for this district are far from complete (vide also infra, page 4).

2nd. The North-Central District of the Northern Division.” —Included between 40° and 50° E. long. (and north of 64° 30’ N. lat., but including the district immediately around Cholmo- gory). This includes the delta of the river Dvina and the country east of the White Sea as far as the watershed of the Péza and Zylma rivers (or the plateau of the Timanskai Mountains), also the island of Kolguef in the Arctic Sea. Our materials for this portion are fuller than for either of the other two districts.

3rd. The N.E. District of the Northern Division.”—In- cluded between 50° and 65° E. long. (and N. of the parallel of 64° 30' N. lat.). This includes the country from the head- waters of the Zylma (or plateau of the Timanskai Moun- tains) eastward, the valley of the Lower Petchora river to the Ural Mountains; and north-eastward to the Kara Sea and the range of the Paechoi Mountains, and including the Island of Waigats and adjoining seas*.

In the second place, I have under each district entered the records of the authors who have treated more or less of the birds of the NorTHERN Division; and I now proceed to give a list of these, with the titles of their papers, in chronological order. The capital letters affixed to the notice of each indi- cate the extent of each author’s field-work, or the districts in connexion with which he has written. I defer a criticism of the doubtful records until towards the close of the paper, merely indicating here the number of species recorded or added to the fauna by each author. The numbers 1 to 17, pre- ceding the following notices, are used for reference in the Table further on.

* Ihave similarly divided the southern division into three districts, but I need not at present name or define them. & i

4 Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown on the’ NORTHERN DIVISION.

List or AuTHors, &c. is

1840. Mipprenvorrr, Von. Bericht tiber die orn. Ergebnisse der naturhist. Reise in Lappland wihrend des Sommers 1840.” (Beitriige zur Kenntniss des Russ. Reiches, Bd. viii. pp. 187-258.)


This is a most important paper. A set of useful Tables gives the faunal value of 75 species in Russian Lapp- land. In my Tables further on, however, I have preferred for the present entering only the simple record (thus, | ), await- ing further elucidation of the fauna of the N.W. District. I would here refer also to Von Middendorft’s larger work, Sibi- rische Reise,’ Band iv. 4to, pp. 785-1094, for much interesting matter connected with Northern Palearctic species. (Cf.

‘This,’ 1870, p. 274.) *

2. 1842. Bysrrov-Branpr. List of Skins of Mammals and Birds sent

by Herr Bystrov of Mezén to Zool. Mus. of Academy.” (Bull. dela Soc. de l’Académie de St. Pétersbourg, vol. x. p. 350.) N.C.

A list of 62 species of birds is given, skins of which had been forwarded from Mezén.


1844. Brastus, J. H. Reise in europ. Russland.’ Braunschweig, 1844.

This I have not been able to consult. It refers, however, I believe, more directly to the southern division.


1850. Lintsesore, W. Bidrag till Norra Rysslands och Norriges Fauna, samlade under en vetenskapelig resai desser lander 1848.” (K. V. Ak. Handl. 1850, ii.) N.W., N.C. (and S.W.).

1852. Ipem. Beitrige zur Ornith. des nordlichen Russlands und Norwegen.” (‘ Naumannia,’ 1852, part ii.) Translation of the last into German.

This is an important contribution. Records of 125 species are given. Of these, 36 occur in the N.W., 73 in the N.C. (and 78 are recorded from the 8.W.).


1856. Horrman-Branpr. ‘‘ Bemerkungen iiber die Wirbelthiere des nordlichen europdischen Russlands, besonders des nordlichen Urals. Ein Beitrag zur naheren zoologisch-geographischen Kennt-

Distribution of Birds in North Russia. 5

niss Nord-Ost-Europa’s.—Vogel:” by J. F. Brandt, p. 61, con- tained in Das nérdliche Ural und das Kiisten-Gebirge Paechoi,’ by Hoffman (vol. ii. p. 61). St. Petersburg, 1856*.

Seventy species are mentioned as occurring in the districts visited by the Ural Expedition ; but of these, nineteen only are recorded as occurring north of 64° 30' N. lat.


1856. Horrmannseae, Grar. Limosa cinerea im ihren Sommer- verhalten.” (Allg. deutsche Naturhistor. Zeitung im Auftrage Gesellsch. Isis in Dresden, neue Folge, Band ii. p. 238.) N.C.

iF 1856. Hencxe. ‘‘Kurzer Bericht tber eine oologische Excursion bei Archangel.” (Ibid. p. 236.) N.C.

Graf Hoffmannsegg and Herr Hencke also visited the Petchora; but the above short papers are all the published records of their discoveries I have been able to find.


1871. Meves. “Orn. iaktt. till stérre delen samlade under en resa 1 NordvestraRyssland; sommaren 1869.” ((Efvers. af Kongl. Vetensk. Akad. Forhandl. 1871, part 6, Stockholm.) N.C. (and 8.).

Tpem. Translation of the above into English by M. Hjaltalin; in MS.

A most valuable paper. Dr. Meves records in all 201 species from N.C. and §.W. districts. Of these, 131 are from the N.C., and 162 are recorded as occurring in the 8. W.

9. 1872. Tu. v. Hever. ‘Notes on the Birds of Novaya Zemlia and Waigats Island.” (‘ Ibis,’ 1872, p. 607.) Many references are here made to the birds of Waigats

* It may be as well that I should here mention that much also has been due to the exertions of earlier travellers in Northern Russia, amongst whom I would instance Herr v. Baer, who has written upon the animal life of Novaja Zemlja, and also the traveller Schrenck, who passed through Siberia in Europe, from west to east, and travelled from Kolva on the Ussa into the Northern Ural. <A fuller reference to the work of these and other naturalists and travellers will be found in the introductory portion of the above paper, into which, however, Prof. Brandt has already worked the principal results, so that they call for no further notice in this place.

+ Also “Nachtrag zur Orn. yon Novaja Zemlja und der Waigatsch-Insel 4 (‘Journal fiir Orn.” 1872, p. 464) and Nachrichten iiber Novaya Zem-

lya. Auszug aus einem Schreiben an Hrn. v. Middendorff” (Bull. Ac.

Imp. St. Pétersb. xvi. p. 566, Mél. Biolog. viii. pp. 220-225).

6 Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown on the

Island and the mainland near Yugorsky Strait, also of Wai- gats Strait; V. Heuglin mentions 38 species as occurring at these localities.


1873. Gorse, H. Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Ornis des Archan- gel’schen Gouvernements.” (Journal fiir Ornithologie, 1873, Jan., no. 121, pp. 406-422.) oe 167 species are recorded as occurring in the N.E, district ;

but, as will be shown further on, a good many of these have

more or less doubt attaching to them*.


1873. Patmén, Prof. J. A. Finlands Foglar, hufvudsakligen till deras dragter beskrifna af Magnus von Wright, &c. Vol. ii. Hel- singfors, 1873. N.W., N.C. (and 8.W.) In this volume all notices have been carefully collected

by Prof. Palmén as to the distribution of the birds (Galline,

Gralle, and Anseres) of Finland, as far to the eastward as

the river Wig and Onega Sea, in the S.W. district, and in-

cluding the whole of the peninsula of Kola, in the N.W.

District ; and to it I am greatly indebted for data for my N.W.

District, as Prof. Palmén quotes all previous writers, including

Middendorff and Lilljeborg, and other reports from naturalists

who have visited the country—Sahlberg and Malmberg and

others. By the courtesy of Prof. Palmén [am also made aware that Lieut. H. Sandebergy, a Swedish naturalist, has last year

(1876) done very good ornithological work in Kola, and that

he also collected in the neighbourhood of Archangel. The

results, however, are not yet made public. Amongst the families treated of in the above workt by

Prof. Palmén, there are records of 90 species altogether which

range into Russia. Of these, 58 are recorded from the N.W.,

* The following paper by Herr Goebel refers mostly to the Southern Division, and will come to be quoted when I treat of the latter; I have not considered it necessary to refer directly to it in the present connexion: —1871, Goebel, H., Eine Reise von Petersburg nach Archangelsk iiber Tver, Jaroslav, Vologda und Ustjug vom 8. May bis 1. Juni 1864” (‘Journal fiir Ornithologie,’ pp. 20-27, 1871).

+ Since the above was sent in to press, in a letter dated “Stockholm, 20th April,” addressed to Prof. Newton, Lieut. Sandeberg writes that he found 538 species of birds new to the peninsula of Kola, last year. He starts again shortly for further exploration in Kola, and, time permitting, in Kanin and Kolguef.

} The same subject is dealt with more fully by Prof. Palmén ina later paper in the Journal fiir Orn.’ for 1876, p. 40 :—“ Die geogr. Verbrei- tung der Hiihner-, Sumpf- und Wasser-Vogel im faunistischen Gebiete Finlands.” The particulars in ‘Finlands Foglar’ are for the most part brought up to date in this later paper; and it also ought to be consulted in this place.

Distribution of Birds in North Russva. 7

22 are given from the N.C., and 50 are recorded as occur- ring in the 8.W. 12.

1873. Axston and Harvie Brown. Notes from Archangel.” Ibis,’ Jan. 1873, p. 54.) N.C. (and 8.W.).

We record in this paper in all 148 species from the N.C. and §.W., but mainly from the former. Some of these, how- ever, hold a somewhat doubtful value, for reasons stated further on, viz. under notice no. 14, List of Birds in the Govern- ment Museum, Archangel’? (vide infra), and under the notes to the species (vide p. 17). 131 are recorded from the N.C., and 17 from the S.W.


1876. H. Seesnonm and Harvis Brown. Notes on the Birds of the Lower Petchora.” (‘ Ibis,’ 1876, Jan., Apr., July, and Oct.)

1876. Harvis Brown. Notes of a Journey to, and Ornithological Observations on the Lower Petchora.” (Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinb. 1875-76, p. 81.)

1876. Ipem. ‘‘ Remarks on Migratory Movements of Birds on the Lower Petchora.” (Proc. Nat.-Hist. Soc. Glasgow, vol. ili. p. 44.)

1876. Sursoum. Articles in Dresser’s Birds of Europe,’ part xlvii. et seqq.

1876. Ipem. “On the Migration of Birds in North-east Russia.” (Rowley’s Orn. Mise. vol. i. part iv. p. 239.)

1877. Harvir Brown. “On the Distribution of Birds of North Russia. I. On the Distribution of Birds on the Lower Petchora, &c. (Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist., April.)

1877. Srrsonm and Harvir Brown. Appendix to Notes on the Birds of the Lower Petchora,” printed separately and issued along with separata of ‘Ibis’ paper wt sup. ,

In this Appendix errors in identification and synonymy are corrected, the parallel discoveries of Messrs. Finsch and Brehm are recorded, as also those of Capt. Feilden ; a résumé of the work accomplished in North Russia and an indication of what remains to be done are given, and also an announcement of shortly expected papers upon our subject.

113 species are recorded from the N.E. district, taking into account the corrections made in the Appendix.

14, 1876. List of the stuffed Specimens of Birds in the Government

Museum at Archangel,” in MS. (155 species from the Archangel Government. )

All these, I have been repeatedly assured by Government officials, were undoubtedly procured in the Archangel Govern- ment. We may not, however, in all cases be justified in giving

8 Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown on the

the species represented an unequivocal right to be included in the fauna of the NorTHERN Division, as many may, and no doubt have been procured in the Government south of our present limit of 64° 30' N. lat., and may more correctly come to be included in the fauna of the southern division. Besides, in the absence of a catalogue, there are one or two more which I am inclined to reject altogether from the fauna, for reasons which I will explain when I come to treat of the doubtful species at the end of this paper.


1876. Prorrucn. Partial Lists of Collections sent home to England, bearing dates of 1875 and 1876, by Piottuch, collector at Arch- angel.

These lists only add, however, two records*; but they verify some of the previous records, which would otherwise remain



1876. Mr. F, C. Crazwers informs me also that he has added two Species +, specimens of which are now in Mr. H. E. Dresser’s collection. I am indebted also to Mr. Craemers for copies of the above partial lists of Piottuch’s collections. M. Piottuch, however, has collected since 1872, but I have not seen all the lists.

Besides the above I find also the following :-—


1853. Scuraprr. Beobachtungen iiber die Végel Lapplands.” (Journal fiir Orn. 1853, p. 242+.) At page 243-44 a list of 20 species which were found by him in Russian Lappland.


1876. Dr. Toren. * Note sur les oiseaux de la Nouvelle-Zemble.” (Annales des Sc. Nat. 1876, tome iv. article 6.)

* Pratincola rubicola? and Somateria spectabilis.

+ Buteo desertorum and Fregilus graculus.

t{ Among the references in the Tables I am obliged to leave this out in its proper chronological order, and to enter it at the end as No. 17, as also the following, which I only refer to in the Notes :”—

1876. Dr. B. Rapaxorr. “Hand-Atlas der geogr. Ausbreitung der im europdischen Russland nistenden Vogel zusammengestellt von Dr. B. Radakoff” (H. Berghaus’s ‘Atlas der Thier-Geographie,’ Moscou, 1876). For notice of this, wde ‘Ibis, 1877, April, p. 225. The text will appear in Russian and be at once translated into German on its completion.

Distribution of Birds in North Russia. 9

Explanation of the Symbols and Arrangement in the following Table.

Absent, or unrecorded, or insufficient data, a blank space. Present, |. Rare, -|-. Com- mon, ||. Very common, tt. Exceedingly abundant, tj. Once, twice, or thrice oc- curred, recorded, identified, shot, added to the fauna, ¥, ¥, 8. Occasional, x. Locally distributed, ©. Generally distributed, o. Very doubtful records: the names of the species and the records enclosed in brackets; the number of the species omitted in the printing ( ) (vide F. sacer of Tables). Less doubtful records : the names of the species and the records NoT enclosed in brackets, and the number of the species retained and printed, but a query in the columns, ?.

Table showing comparative Distribution of the Fauna in the three Districts of the NORTHERN DIVISION and the Faunal Value of the Species in each.

; = | | | References to Authorities in Species. A dl A Bas foregoing List. Pitre. 1. Aquila chrysaétus, (Z.) ...- ee 2, 10, 12, 18, 14. 2. Haliaétus albicilla,(Z.) ...-}1 | [il 1, 8, 10, 12, 18, 14, 15, 18. 8. Pandion haliaétus, (Z.) ape 4, 8, 10, 12, 18, 14. 4, Buteo vulgaris, Bechst....... | 4, 8, 10, 12, 18, 15. 1 5. —— desertorum, Daud. .... g 16. 2 6, lagopus, Briinn. ...... | | | 1, 2, 4, 5', 10, 13. 7. Pernis apivorus, (Z.) ...... * 4,10, 12, 14. 8. Milvusictinus, Savig. ...... 2 12? 3 9, —— migrans, Bodd......... II 4,8, 10. 10. Falco gyrfalco, Schleg. ...... | | | 4, 5, 8,